Like other pictures of the Urbino collection, the portrait entered Florence in 1631 together with the legacy of Vittoria della Rovere. It was ordered and completed at the same time as the previous one. Aretino in a letter to the poetess Veronica Gambar from November 7, 1537, gives the text of her sonnet dedicated to this portrait.
Eleonora Gonzaga, the wife of Francesco Maria della Rovere, came from the genus of the Mantua Marquis of Gonzaga, was the daughter of Francesco II Gonzaga and his wife Isabella d’Este, one of the most educated women of this time. The sleeping dog, depicted next to the duchess, is a traditional attribute of matrimonial fidelity.