Degas used a variety of engraving techniques, including etching, for example in an undated self-portrait, as well as a dry needle, aquatint and lithography. He was engaged in a monotype, mixed technique, which is something in between drawing, painting and print. Connecting the monotype with pastel, Degas wrote “Concert at the cafe” Ambassador “, 1876-1877.
The monotyping technique allows you to create a drawing on any suitable surface, and then transfer it to paper. Theoretically, it is possible to obtain only one imprint, however, in practice, two prints and more can be made from one drawing.
This technique, which provides a wide scope for the experiment, fell in Degas’s liking. Some monotypes remained independent works, but very often the artist used them as a basis for further drawing by pastel.